• Daniil Krupko

Journal №1 2018

Updated: Feb 13, 2020

Contents


EDITOR COLUMN


The challenges of the publication activity of the Russian researchers................3


SCIENCE AND ADVANCED EXPERIENCE


Genomics


GLAZKO V.I., KOSOVSKY G.Yu., GLAZKO T.T.


Domestication as genetic phenomena...................................................5


V.I. GLAZKO, Dr. Biol. Sci., academician RAS (foreign member), G.Yu. KOSOVSKY, Dr. Biol. Sci., T.T. GLAZKO, Dr. Biol. Sci.

The concepts of «signs of domestication», «domestication syndrome», describes the literature and own data about the characteristics that distinguish domesticated from closely related wild species were discussed. The importance of clarifying the genetic basis involved in the domestication, in particular, in connection with the search of possibilities of compensating loss of biodiversity, using allele pool of domesticated species, for example, domesticand wild rabbits were analyzed. Three hypotheses about the mechanisms of domestication were provided, but none of them explained the differences between domesticated from the wild species on the phenotypic and genetic variability. Own evidence in favor of the assumption that domesticated species differed from wild ones by increased activity of transpositions of mobile genetic elements were presented.

Key words: domestication, signs of domestication, domestication syndrome, retrotransposons, synteny genes, pleiotropy



ANIMAL BREEDING AND PEDIGREE WORK


O.V. TRAPEZOV


From the technology of fur farming to its philosophy. To the 100th anniversary of Academician D.K. Belyaev.........................................................10


The prominent role of outstanding Academician D.K. Belyaev in the development of the fur farming science in our country was shown.

Key words: academician D.К. Belyaev,genetic and selection of fur animals, photoperiod, destabilizing selection


S.V. BEKETOV, I.E. CHERNOVA, A.R. KORESHKOV


Fur-bearing animals: prerequisites for domestication and origin of the original forms of the main breeds .............................13


S.V. BEKETOV, Dr. Biol. Sci., I.E. CHERNOVA, Cand. Agr. Sci., A.R. KORESHKOV, graduate student

Fur-breeding is a highly specialized branch of animal husbandry, mainly focused on receiving skins of fur-bearing animals. The main direction in the selection - the creation of new color variations of color and quality characteristics of fur, representing the greatest commercial value. In article the prerequisites for domestication of farmed main species of fur-bearing animals and the areas of origin of their original forms are discussed.

Keywords: fur-bearing animals, domestication, fox, arctic fox, mink, sable, main breeds, initial forms, areas of origin.



A.R. SHUMILINA, G.Yu. KOSOVSKY, N.I. TINAEV, E.V. GOLOVANOVA, K.I. EGOROVA


Comparative evaluation of rabbit breeds white giant, soviet chinchilla, californian and three-breed hybrid................................................................21


A.R. SHUMILINA, Cand. Biol. Sci.,G.Yu. KOSOVSKY, Dr. Biol. Sci., N.I. TINAEV, Dr. Biol. Sci., E.V. GOLOVANOVA, K.I. EGOROVA, graduate student

A comparative evaluation of the economic efficiency of breeding rabbits of white giant, Soviet chinchilla, Californian and three-breed chinchilla, Californian and three-breed cross breeds was made on the basis of elemental economic useful traits and their complex for rabbit and litter at the age of realization (77 and 90 days) using uniform methodology. For this purpose, the manifestation of each elemental sign was expressed in conventional rubles, which allowed further evaluation of their total manifestation and to perform a comparative analysis of the economic efficiency of breeding rabbits of differen tbreeds and their hybrids. The data obtained indicate a relatively high ereconomic efficiency of the use of three waycrosses compared to the original rocks. There is relatively increased consolidation in terms of the viability of the youngest three-breed crosses compared to such breeds as the soviet chinchilla, the californian breed.

Key words: rabbit, breed, white giant, soviet chinchilla, californian, three-bred cross hybrid, fertility, bodyweight, heterosis, economic effect.


VETERINARY


I.V. PETROVA, A.N. SEMIKRASOVA, A.R. SHUMILINA, L.E. GRISHINA, G.Yu. KOSOVSKY


Comparison of non-specific resistance of young hybrid rabbit and original breeds...................................25


I.V. PETROVA, Cand. Vet. Sci., A.N. SEMIKRASOVA, Cand. Biol.Sci., A.R. SHUMILINA, Cand. Biol. Sci., L.E. GRISHINA, G.Yu. KOSOVSKY, Dr. Biol. Sci.

The breeding of animals, the most enduring and resistant to various diseases, is a scientifically grounded prerequisite for the creation of a healthy breeding stock suitable for prolonged and intensive use. In this connection,there is a problem to study the factors of non-specific resistance of a hybrid rabbit and to compare the obtained data with the indices of the animals of the original species. Based on the results of the study, information is given on the morphological composition of blood and phagocytic activity of leukocytes in the interbreeding hybrid of rabbits and the original forms.

Key words: rabbit, hybrid, resistance,phagocytic activity, morphologicalparameters of blood, immunity


U. E. KOZLOVSKY, T. I. HOMJARJVA, G. V. KOZLOVSKAJA, A. D. MAGOMEDOVA, S. A. PUSTOVALOV, N. F. CHERTOVICH


Some aspects of the interaction of probiotic bacteria with the organism of experimental animals............................................28


U. E. KOZLOVSKY, T. I. HOMJARJVA, G. V. KOZLOVSKAJA, A. D. MAGOMEDOVA, S. A. PUSTOVALOV, N. F. CHERTOVICH

As a result of experimental studies, it has been established that quantitative changes in the normoflora of experimental animals occur already in the first hours after the introduction of probiotic strains and their character depends on the taxonomic status of the latter. These changes are dynamic. In the long-term (14 days), there was a suppression of the development of opportunistic pathogens, an increase in the number of normal E. coli and lactobacilli. Stimulation of enterococci, bacterioids and bifidobacteria was noted. Changes in the cytokine profile and morphological changes in the digestive organs (thick intestine, liver) and immune (spleen) systems of the body of experimental animals are noted. The results of the study indicate the need for a more thorough study of the properties of the probiotic probes in the pre-clinical stage. It is also necessary to refine the morphological criteria in assessing the possible consequences of using probiotics.

Key words: probiotics, microbiome, normoflora, interleukins, cytokines

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