Journal №1 2019
Updated: Feb 13, 2020
SCIENCE AND ADVANCED EXPERIENCE
Kosovsky G.Yu., Kashapova І.Ѕ., Mezhevikina L.M. Use of Various Transgenesis Methods to Mesenchymal
Stem Cells of Farm Animals ............................ . .. .....................................3
Summary. The article presents the results of studies on the effectiveness of the use of various methods of transgenesis to MSCs isolated from donors belonging to different types of farm animals. Vector systems containing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) marker were used as transfecting agents. It was found that the use of the plasmid vector pEGFP-N1 is preferable to pCI-EGFP for manipulations with MSCs of cattle and rabbit. Lipofection is preferable to electroporation. Under conditions of durable cultivation of transfected MSCs of cattle and rabbit, the formation of giant fibroblast-like cells with two or more nuclei detected. Species-specific features of MSCs of cattle and rabbit are identified. Rabbit cells are more resistant to high voltage than cattle cells, which are sensitive to both the electroporation procedure and GFP products.
Keywords: mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), transfection, plasmid vectors, cultivation, differentiation
Animal Breeding and Tribal Work
Will We Ве Able to Revive That We Are Losing and That We Have Already Lost ..............9
Summary. The emphasis is made on the urgent need to preserve the existing breeds of rabbits in Russia. Characteristics of the breeds and breed groups which have not remained till now is given, their valuable qualities which could be successfully used now in selection process are emphasized. Almost lost veil silver breed rabbits, in addition to the unique color of the hair and increased resistance, had a high productive quality. On fertility (8.9 rabbits), the number of frozen litters of winter childbirth (13.2%), the milk ability of females (4154 g), the safety of young up to 4 months of age (92.5%), business output (29.5 per 1 female) and slaughter output (in adults up to 58%, in 4-month-old young to 56.1%) veil silver superior rabbits breeds exceed Black-Greyish-Brown and White Giant. Not preserved breed groups of rabbits were characterized by high body weight, intensive growth and good quality of skins, these are Kazan Blue, Cat rabbits, Perm Marble, Soviet Short-haired, Tatar Silver, Chinchilla Giants as well as the preservation of the breed group of Golden and Black-White rabbits is a big question. The size of adults of some breed groups was 7.0-8.0 kg, body length - 67-68 cm, chest girth - 35-36 cm, by 4 months of age the young growth reached 3.0-3.5 kg with average daily gains 28.7 g. The foreign breeds in Russia that are the Butterfly (English Spotted) breed and the New Zealand Red are not preserved and some Russian breeds such as the Russian Ermine and the Russian Marder are not preserved too. There are breeds on the verge of extinction: Angora, Ram, Viennese Blue, Rex, Gray Giant, Black-Brown. Domestic breeds of rabbits bred in mechanized rabbitry with intensive use showed good results. In the Koshakovsky fur animal farm, on average, over all breeds, the safety of the young stock was 69,8%, 5,73 parturitions per one female, in Istok UralNIISHKhoz – 74,5 % and 5,79 parturitions, respectively. The rabbits of the Chinchilla Giant pedigree group, which had the lowest percentage of culling of the main herd, turned out to be the most adapted for breeding in a closed-type mechanized rabbitry. The greatest number of youths per year was obtained by rabbits of this breed. Having a complex of valuable economically useful traits, domestic breeds of rabbits are distinguished by high plasticity, show high rates of productivity under any breeding conditions. Currently, this is a priority, as market conditions and consumers requirements have changed.
Keywords: rabbit, breed, gene pool, conservation
Feeds and Feeding of Farm Animals
Kvartnikova E.G. Kosovsky G.Yu., Kvartnikov М.Р., Kumarin S.V.
Digestibility of Nutrients of the Full Ration Granulated Mix Feed (FRGMF) of Young Rabbits in the Dynamics........................................................................ 15
Summary. Soluble carbohydrates (nitrogen-free extractives (NFE)) are the main source of energy for rabbits, but they are they are not countable in the normalization. Dry matter, protein and fiber are normalized in feeding rabbits . These standards are focused on Full Ration Granulated Mix Feed (FRGMF), which include, in addition to vegetable feed, animal feed. Consumption and digestibility of nutrients of feed by young rabbits, according to different authors, vary greatly [9, 3, 6, 4]. This article presents the results of a series of physiological experiments on the digestibility of nutrients and energy of young Soviet Chinchilla rabbits in dynamics. Balance tests were carried out in accordance with the guidelines [2, 7]. The chemical composition of feed and excretions of rabbits was determined by the method of complete animal science analysis . The (FRGMF) for rabbits consisted only of feed of plant origin. It was found that with a dry type of feeding, the consumption of all nutrients and gross energy (GE) remains at a constant level as the young grow up after jigging from mothers, as well as their excretion with feces. The chemical composition of the isolated feces is constant over all three periods. Except for the fat content, it contains the same amount of protein and mineral substances as feed, but less dry matter by 25%, fat by 45-16%, NFE by 46-31%, and fiber almost 3 times more, which indicates the specific physiology of rabbit digestion. The coefficients of digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, protein, gross energy of FRGMF by young rabbits are on average at 75%, mineral substances - 55%, fat and NFE - 90%, fiber - less than 10%.
Keywords: young rabbits, nutrients, digestibility coefficient, chemical composition, balance experience.
Rasskazova N.T., Prudchenko L.I., Vasilyela N.V.
The use of non-traditional additives in feeding young minks ...................................................................... 19
Summary. Special attention of scientists and practitioners is aimed at finding the most effective methods that increase the use of nutrients in diets.
Biologically active additives (BAA) are widely used in the diets of farm animals and they accelerate animal growth and improve the development of main economically useful traits.
The article shows the efficiency of feeding biologically active additives of natural resources of Primorskii Krai in fur farming. The results of studies of determination of the effect of biologically active additives isolated by the processing of cucumaria are presented.
Cucumaria is rich in unique useful properties, it is a real depository of vitamins, minerals and vital compounds. Cucumaria is rich in vitamins (groups B and C), as well as phosphorus, calcium, iodine and chlorine. In addition, cucumaria contains a large amount of hexosamines and holothurin. Herewith, its tissues are sterile; they are completely free of microbes and viruses. It strengthens the immune system; extracts of cucumaria are used in the treatment of cancer, it improves the endocrine system.
All sorts of extracts are isolated from this animal. They are widely used as independent medicinal products, and as ingredients for complex drugs and additives.
One of the feed additives are products of cucumatia processing (dried viscera of cucumaria (DVC).
The use of this BAA has a positive effect on the growth rate, increases the length of the body and, as a result, it influences on the quantity of pelts of "0" size, that entails higher level of profitability.
Keywords: mink, live weight, commodity assessment, dried viscera of cucumaria, diet.
Veseliova N.A., Borisova М.М., Volyanina А.А.
Special Features of the Growth of the Fox Puppies and Raccoon (Procyon lotor) Puppies Under Condition of а Contact Zoo...................................................................................... 23
Summary. The investigation is devoted to the research (study) of growth’s features of youngs of carnivorous mammals such as red fox and raccoon under the conditions of contact zoo. During our study we carried out measurements of live weight of animals, and determined relative and absolute gains of live weight. The obtained results were compared with similar data known from literature and conditionally accepted for the norm of development of youngs. The studies research found that the most intense absolute live weight gain of cubs observed at the period from the 2st to the 8rd months of life, young raccoons intensive increased in weight at the period from 3 to 7 months of life. The ratio of changes of the average live weight of cubs lived in the contact zoo and the literature data had significant differences, weight of cubs from the zoo was lower than the norm over 985,4 grams. The ratio of changes in the live weight of raccoons under the conditions of the contact zoo and literature data had significant differences, wherein in the period from 2 to 3 months age raccoon’s live weight was below normal by a mean of 681,1 grams. The most intensive increase in the indices of linear measurements of animals (body length, height at withers, chest girth) was observed in the first 5 months of life.
Keywords: zooculture, zoo, Order Carnivora, red fox (Vulpes vulpes), raccoon (Procyon lotor), captivity.
Parkalov I.V., Navnyko M.V.
Products of Processing of Biological Products Are Valuable Feed Raw Materials in Farming..................................................... 27
Summary. At the present stage the development of feed base for fur animals is actual problem. Feeds of animal origin are base of ration for fur animals. Developed feeding norms of feeding and sample diets for each production period . However, feed base in fur farming feel shortage of high-grade protein of animal origin. Lately for fur farming muscle meat, whole fish and offal in the first category have become virtually inaccessible, the major components of the diet began feeds with low nutritional value . In this case, the volume of the normalized quantity of feed lot increases up especially during growth. In this article we propose ways of processing of livestock and poultry slaughter with obtaining final product in the form of frozen briquettes, fat and concentrated dried mix fodder. In the Republic of Belarus increasing the production of meat of farm animals and poultry clearly tends. In this regard, the problem of recycling of slaughter of these animals is becoming more urgent. The existing economic conditions require introduction into production of high-efficiency non-waste technologies. At the moment, the question of the creation of environmentally sound production methods and equipment to ensure effective recycling of waste becomes more than relevant.
Our assumptions not only solve the problem of utilization of waste of livestock/ poultry processing, but also provide the fur animal breeding industry of the Republic of Belarus with complete protein feeds, saving significant funds for the purchase of protein supplements abroad.
Keywords: mink, diet, extruder, biowaste, cereal forage, productivity, utilization.