Journal №2 2019
Updated: Feb 13, 2020
SCIENCE AND ADVANCED EXPERIENCE
A New Method of Molecular Diagnosis of Parvovirus Enteritis in Carnivores Petrusha O.A., Chernichenko T.L., Faizuloev E.B.
O.A. PETRUSHA1, Junior Researcher
E.B. FAIZULOEV1, Head of the Laboratory, Ph.D.
1 FSBSI SRI of Vaccines and Serums n/a I.I. Mechnikov
2 Biocenter LLC,
Abstract. Parvovirus enteritis causes large economic losses for fur farms. Existing methods for the diagnosis of parvovirus enteritis are either difficult to implement and carried out only in a specialized laboratory, or do not have the necessary sensitivity. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification of DNA (LAMP) is a promising method for rapid and highly sensitive diagnosis of infectious on livestock farms.
The study was conducted on samples of feces, blood and swabs from the rectum of different species of predatory animals (cats, dogs, minks, foxes) with parvovirus enteritis (n = 39) and healthy animals (n = 31), as well as on laboratory culture strains of mink enteritis virus "Beregovoy" and "Rodniki". The samples were analyzed by real-time fluorescent LAMP (RT-LAMP) using SYTO-82 DNA intercalating dye. As a reference method the real-time PCR method was used.
In our study, the RT-LAMP in the carnivore parvovirus enteritis model provides high analytical sensitivity (1.5×103 copies of DNA/ml), diagnostic sensitivity and specificity (up to 100% under optimal conditions).
The lower analytical sensitivity of the RT-LAMP method that we detected by an order of magnitude compared with real-time PCR is not capable of impairing the diagnostic sensitivity, since parvovirus enteritis is characterized by an extremely high concentration of viral DNA in feces. Thus, the average concentration of parvovirus DNA in the clinical samples studied by us was 2.8 × 1010 copies of DNA/ml, and the average time to detect the result in RT-LAMP was 23 minutes.
The development and introduction of a portable thermostated domestic real-time fluorimeter for the isothermal nucleic acids amplification methods remains topical. An important problem is also the development of simplified systems of sample preparation, allowing extraction of nucleic acids for amplification quickly and with minimal contamination risk in off-lab conditions.
Keywords: diagnosis of viral infections, loop-mediated isothermal amplification of DNA, LAMP, SYTO-82, carnivore parvovirus
Animal Breeding and Tribal Work
Comparative characteristics of exterior variability of rabbits of White Giant breed, the Soviet Chinchilla breed, Californian breed and Three-Breed Cross, created on the basis of them Shumilina A.R., Tinaev N.I., Kosovsky G.Yu., Golovanova E.V.
A.R. SHUMILINA, PhD.
N.I. TINAEV, Grand PhD
G.Yu. KOSOVSKY, Grand PhD, Professor of RAS
E.V. GOLOVANOVA, Researcher
Summary. The studies were conducted on an experimental rabbit farm “Science” of FSBI NIIPZK. The exterior characteristics of rabbits were assessed by body length, chest girth behind the shoulder blades, body churning index and body weight. The subjects of research were: young rabbits of tree-breed cross and original for its selection breeds (White Giant breed, Soviet chinchilla, Californian breed) at the age of 77 and 90 days (10 males of each breed and cross) and adult animals aged 8 months and older (after selection by origin and the phenotype) of the parental form of the cross (127 females and 34 males) and the same breeds (30 females and 20 males of each breed).
The variability of linear body measurements of young animals shows that, at 77 and 90 days of age, purebred young animals have the highest coefficient of variation of the body length and the chest girth.
The coefficient of variation in live weight of young animals at the age of 77 and 90 days was the greatest among the Californian breeds and slightly varied in breeds of the White Giant and the Soviet Chinchilla; the smallest (77 days) - at the cross.
Analysis of the absolute values of standard quadratic deviations of phenotypes of young rabbits shows a similarity in the variability of measurements with age increase (indicators increase).
The highest values of quadratic deviation and coefficient of variation in live weight were observed among adult purebred males and females of the Californian breed, the smallest among females — the White Giant and the parental form of the cross.
A large homogeneity of the exterior variability and body weight of adult males and females of White Giant breed rabbits and a three-breed cross was established. As for the males and females of the Californian breed and Soviet Chinchilla breed, for exterior variability they have (except the chest girth behind the shoulder blades) the greatest deviations of the coefficient of variation in comparison with animals of the White Giant breed and cross.
There was also a difference in the size of the range of measurements that determine the deviation of some coefficients of variation from the general trend, but they were insignificant in quantitative terms, that is, there was unity in the general features of variability and a difference in some measurements between experimental animals.
The high coefficient of variation in live weight of young and adult Californian breed animals (12.8% and 14.9%) indicates the possibility of selective improvement of the economic and useful trait in this population.
The length of the body and the body churning index of the parental form of the three-breed cross are less variable in comparison with these indicators of the original breeds - White Giant breed, the Soviet Chinchilla breed and the Californian breed, which indicates a greater exterior consolidation of the three-breed cross.
Keywords: rabbit, selection, breed, White Giant breed, Soviet Chinchilla breed, Californian breed, three-breed cross, exterior features, live weight.
Feeds and Feeding of Farm Animals
Rabbit hematological values under conditions of industrial technology using multipurpose feed Shastina E.V., Zdyumaeva N.P., Ozeretskovskaya E.V.
E.V. SHASTINA1, lecturer
N.P. ZDYUMAEVA1, Grand PhD, Assistant professor
E.V. OZERETSKOVSKAYA2, Chief Veterinarian
1 FSBEI HE Kostroma SAA
2 LLC “Russky krolik”
Summary. The purpose of this study was to study the effect of a universal feed ration containing 16% of protein and 17.5% of crude fiber on hematological and biochemical blood parameters of young rabbits under conditions of intensive production. The development of a universal recipe of full ration complete feed for all physiological groups of rabbits with an optimal ratio of protein and fiber using available feed resources is an important direction to improve the economic indicators in an industrial rabbit breeding. To determine the effectiveness and safety of such feed in addition to productive qualities, a comprehensive assessment of the physiological state of animals is necessary. A blood test provides an opportunity to explore a large number of important indicators, the values of which can be used to identify pathologies and stress caused by conditions of keeping animals and feeding, as well as indicators of metabolic processes in the body. A total of 47 young rabbits obtained by crossing of the New Zealand White breed and Californian breed were divided into two groups. The control group of young rabbits together with females received compound mix feed PK-92, containing 17% of protein and 15% of crude fiber. After absences (35 days) before slaughter (77 days), the youngsters received PK-93 feed containing 15% of protein and 16% of crude fiber. An experimental group of animals from 21 days of life to slaughter received experimental feed containing 16% of protein and 17.5% of crude fiber. Erythrocytes, leukocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils, platelets, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, hemoglobin (MCH), mean hemoglobin concentration in the erythrocyte (MCHC), mean erythrocyte volume (MCV) were calculated in the blood samples taken from the marginal ear vein. The biochemical analysis of plasma and serum determined the total protein content, protein fractions, the concentration of urea, creatinine, phosphorus and calcium, it determined the activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP). It has been shown that the use of experimental feed is contributed to an increase in the number of erythrocytes (17,8%, р˂0,01) and hematocrit (14,8%, р˂0,01). Changes in these indicators within physiological norms indicate an intensification of metabolic processes, and in general, a positive effect of changes in the diet on the health of fattening young rabbits.
Keywords: rabbits, feed ration, intensive production, hematological parameters, serum biochemical parameters
Economic efficiency of forensic biological examinations for wild boars in illegal hunting Kozhushko A.A., Korotkova I.P., Rasskazova N.T.
A. A. KOZHUSHKO, Postgraduate Student
I. P. KOROTKOVA, Grand PhD, Assistant Professor
N. T. RASSKAZOVA, Grand PhD, Assistant Professor
Summary. The wild boar (Sus scrofa) is a wild representative and it has a relatively large size, short stature, massive body. Wild boar belongs to the family of Suidae, detachment of artiodactyls (Artyodactyla) and genus of Sus. In Russian Federation wild boar is common in the European part, the North Caucasus, near the Caspian Sea, in the south of Siberia and the Far East .
A.A. Danilkin conducting a taxonomic study of each subspecies of wild boar noted that the Ussurian subspecies of wild boars is a pure genetic form and this is the largest subspecies of boars .
In the XIX century in Primorsky Krai, on average, one hunter hunted between 40 and 100 wild boar specimens per winter. This led to almost complete destruction of the subspecies. V.I. Mashkin noted that the licensed shooting of wild boar had a maximum in the period from 2009 to 2014. About 56 thousand animals were destroyed. To restore the number of subspecies it will require several decades of application of protective measures and artificial settlement of individuals . At the beginning of the twentieth century, due to the political situation in Russia, the population of the country was forced to obtain food through hunting. Currently, hunting is entertaining. Wild boar has been and is being mass exterminated. Ungulates are the main food supply for large predatory animals. One Amur tiger per year needs from 30 to 50 wild boar individuals .
As a result of poachers' activity, about eighty thousand individuals of this species die each year . Poachers hunt adult animals regardless of gender, so the young in the loss of a female inevitably die. The extermination of females leads to a rapid decline of the population . Fangs are among the three most valuable hunting trophies of the highest level.
The article presents an analysis of forensic biological examinations for a wild boar at the Center for the Diagnosis of Animal Diseases of the State Agricultural Academy of Primorskiy Krai. We reviewed the concepts of actual damage caused by illegal hunting for a wild boar in the Primorsky Territory, presented a detailed description, revealed a mechanism for calculating the amount of harm.
Keywords: illegal hunting, wild boar, actual damage.
Analysis of mink pelts sales at fur auctions in 2018 Sergeev E.G.
E.G. SERGEEV, PhD
Summary. According to the results of the fur auction in 2018 at the three main international auctions (Kopenhagen fur, NAFA and Saga furs) the dynamics of cost of the most popular colors of mink pelts without differentiation by size has been analyzed. Mink pelts brown, black, sapphire, silver-blue and white were the most popular. The dynamics and price limits for the mink pelts of females and males for each color during the year were revealed. The constant trend of reducing the cost of mink pelts of all colors at auctions at the end of the year, compared with trading at the beginning of the year was from 5 to 44%.
Sales of the Saga Furs have the highest prices. The greatest demand was for sapphire mink pelts – the average price was 33,65 US dollars per pelt.
Considering the amount of mink puppies of the listed colors in 2018 in Russian Federation, the forecast of an exit of pelt production and hypothetical potential realization of pelts was presented.
Keywords: mink pelts, color of pelts, fur auctions, sales, prices