Journal №3 2019
Updated: Feb 13, 2020
Feeding of cage fur animals as a domestication factor Balakirev N.A.
NA Balakirev, Academician RAS
1Timiryazev Russian State Agrarian University—Moscow Agrarian Academy, 49, ul. Timiryazevskaya, Moscow, 127550 Russia, e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org
The world science and especially theory of evolution got a great benefit from a concept of destabilizing selection postulated by academician D.K. Belyaev.
A lapse of almost a hundred-year captivity did not prevent cage fur animals from strict periodicity in biological cycles in reproduction, shedding, and metabolic events that are manifested especially well at the background of changes caused by the first steps of domestication. At the same time, in course of domestication, cage fur animals got a great many changes differing them from their wild ancestors. Domestication resulted, first of all, in alterations of traits determining the value of skin and fur.
The initial period of domestication involved first of all changes in the higher nervous system. Self-defensive and predatory reflexes were considerably weakened. More and more quiet animals that do not demonstrate any aggression against people appear in the farms. Dimensions and mass of farm animals became much greater than dimensions and mass of their wild relatives. Cage animals have less energy expenses for active movements, loads on their cardiovascular and other morpho-physiologic systems decreased.
Affected by alternative diets, the cage fur animals obtained alterations in digestive systems, enzymatic activity and in the gastrointestinal tract in general. As one can see from the increase in productivity of the animals, they have adapted to new diets. That is why D.K. considered the biological sense of domestication first of all as a hereditary change in animal behavior in the conditions of captivity.
Keywords: domestication, feeding, selection, productivity.
Old and new in the domestication problems Glazko V.I.
1Timiryazev Russian State Agrarian University—Moscow Agrarian Academy, 49, ul. Timiryazevskaya, Moscow, 127550 Russia, e-mail email@example.com
2Afanas'ev Research Institute of Fur-Bearing Animal Breeding and Rabbit Breeding, 6, ul. Trudovaya, pos. Rodniki, Ramenskii Region, Moscow Province, 140143 Russia
Abstract: The basis and source of modern civilization is the domestication of plants and animals. Reducing the biodiversity of agricultural species requires the development of new methods of control of genetic resources, which leads to the need to identify population-genetic characteristics that distinguish domesticated species from closely related wild species. It leads to consideration of traits and characteristics that accompany the domestication process, starting from classic and ending with modern genomic data. The joint coevolution of man and domesticated species, occupying and transforming the overall niche is discussed. The data on some gene and genomic " signature" of domestication, genomic distributions of mobile genetic elements in different species, "genomic signature" of domestication at the level of transposons and endogenous retroviruses are presented. One possibility to explain the phenomenon of domestication is that the observed unique phenotypic variability of domesticated species may be the result of increased contact with exogenous retroviruses and the high diversity of the latter in the process of entering to the new habitat of domesticated species associated with human settlement.
Key words: domestication, gene and genomic "signature", microsatellites, endogenous retroviruses, metabolic pathways
Genomic landscape and mobile genetic elements Kosovsky G.Yu., Glazko V.I., Glazko T.T.
Abstract: The problems of different levels of organization of the genetic apparatus in the space of the interphase nucleus, the involvement of mobile genetic elements in their formation are considered. As the largest element of the nuclear architectonics, the subdivision of diploid sets into haploid sets of chromosomes is distinguished. It is suggested that the positioning of different chromosomal regions is realized due to the balance between the attachment of chromosomes to the lamina to be under the nuclear envelope and interchromosomal contacts. Experimental data on statistically significant correlations between the dissociation of homologs and cell aneuploidy, as well as the proximity of homologs and the frequencies of centric mergers (Robertson translocations), are presented. The tendency of connections between the reduced frequency of cytogenetic anomalies and the increased polymorphism of DNA fragments flanked by inverted repeats of some microsatellites and long terminal repeats of endogenous retroviruses is revealed. The relationship between high phenotypic variability of domesticated animals and genomic instability is discussed.
Key words: nuclear architectonics, mobile genetic elements, methylation, cytogenetic anomalies, domestication
Paleogenomics and domestication Boguslavskiy D.V.
D.V. BOGUSLAVSKIY, PhD
Koltzov Institute of Developmental Biology of Russian Academy of Sciences
Summary. Over the past 30 years, an analysis of the genetic history of all major cultivated plants and domestic animals has been carried out. The models of chronology and biogeography of their domestication and subsequent breeding were proposed, first according to mitochondrial and then genomic DNA. Paleogenomic technologies change our understanding of the domestication, because they give us geochronological reference.
Keywords: paleogenomics, ancient DNA, domestication, feralization, Przewalski’s horse.
Morphofmunctional organization of leucocytes in breeding mustelid species (Mustelidae, Carnivora): Comparative study Kizhina A.G., Uzenbaeva L.B., Ilykha V.A., Fokina V.O.
A.G. KIZHINA1, PhD, senior researcher
L.B. UZENBAEVA1, PhD, senior researcher
V.A. ILYKHA1, Grand PhD, director of Institute of biology of KRC of RAS
V.O. FOKINA2, student
1Institute of biology of KRC of RAS
2Petrozavodsk State University
Abstract. The family Mustelidae is the most species-rich family in the order Carnivora. Members of the Mustelidae exhibit a wide range of ecomorphologic and dietary diversity. The study was performed on three species of the Mustelidae family – the American mink (Neovison vison), the ferret (Mustela putoris) and the sable (Martes zibellina), popular objects of fur farming. These species differ by the expressiveness of domestication behavior, systematic position — they refer to different genera and are at different stages of domestication. A comparative study of the morphofunctional characteristics of leukocytes including the determination of the different leucocytes count and the alkaline phosphatase (AP) content in leukocytes was carried out. Freshly prepared blood smears were stained with hematological stains (eosin-methylene blue according to May-Grunwald and Romonovsky-Giemsa) according to Pappenheim for determining differential leucocytes count. Identification of AP in leukocytes was performed by cytochemical method. Subsequently, the preparations were analyzed using an Axioscop 40 light microscope (Carl Zeiss) and the computer method NCR (nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio) from image analysis software package “VideoTest 4.0”. In our study, we have been found differences in the differential leucocytes count in the three species. In ferrets, lymphocytes were numerous cells among leucocytes, whereas minks have a lesser number of them. The highest content of segmented neutrophils was typically for minks, the lowest for ferrets, sables showed intermediate values of this cell type. The increased number of basophils in sables and monocytes in ferrets were other specific features. We assume that the differences in the expressiveness of domestication behavior are reflected in the content of different types of leucocytes are regulating by the pituitary-adrenal system. A comparative study of the activity of AP in the leukocytes and AP-positive leukocytes counts in peripheral blood also revealed some species differences. The sable differed from mink and ferret significant higher content of AP-positive leukocytes, at the same time means of AP activity in one AP-positive leukocyte were similar for all three species. Thus, the specific features of the peripheral blood composition and alkaline phosphate content were established in minks, sables, and ferrets. Differences in AP activity in the three mustelid species could be formed in the process of adaptation to environmental factors in the course of evolution.
Keywords: Neovison vison, Mustela putoris, Martes zibellina, leucocytes, alkaline phosphatase.
Domestication of fish in aquaculture Pronina G.I.
The paper shows the results of domestication and selection in fish. Options of improvement of fish immunity are exemplified by the selection of carp. The breeds resistant to red spot disease differ from susceptible ones in some physiological traits. For example, immune resistant fish have a lower proportion of immature rod neutrophils, high phagocytic activity in neutrophils, found with a lysosomal-cationic test, high level of metabolism. The authors have established a cross “Surski malokostni” (application N 77897) a hybrid between a female of Anish mirror breed and a male of immune resistant Angelin mirror breed. The cross was marked with a high heterosis effect in survival at various stages of ontogenesis. The results of the physical and immunological evaluation of the cross showed distinctive features of the cross in hematological, cytochemical and biochemical tests: a large proportion of lymphocytes, high level of carbohydrate and protein metabolism evaluated by amylase activity and albumin level.
Keywords: selection, immune resistance, cross, hematologic factors, leucogram, biochemical tests, lysosomal cationic protein.
On the role of behavior in the payment for food in American mink (Neovison vison) Nekrasovа М.А., Аlekseeva Z.N., Trapezova L.I., Trapezov O.V.
М.А. NEKRASOVА 1 Postgraduate Student
Z.N. АLEKSEEVA 1 Grand PhD, Professor
L.I. TRAPEZOVA 2 Senior Assistent
O.V. TRAPEZOV 2,3 Grand PhD
Summary: During selection for positive and aggressive reaction towards man in cage breeding American mink sexual dimorphism in paying for food was revealed: males spend significantly less food per unit of body weight than females. Payment for food is influenced by selection by behavior: animals with moderately aggressive behavior have the advantage of paying for food. When growing American mink for the production of skins, the expediency of selecting animals for moderate aggressiveness is shown.
Keywords: American mink, Neovison vison, behavior, payment for food.
Earliness performance of sable repair females Chekalova T.M., Orlova E.A., Zotova А.А.
Domestication and breeding factors in reindeer herding Yuzhakov A. A.
Yuzhakov A. A.
Federal state scientific institution "North-Western centre for the study of interdisciplinary problems of food security", St. Petersburg-Pushkin, st. Podbelskogo,7
Abstract. The article analyzes the problem of the origin of domestic reindeer in Eurasia, the characteristics of the breeding process in northern reindeer herding. It has been established that the most important factors in the domestication and formation of reindeer breeds are the habitat and ecotypes, the grazing system and type of feeding, the size of the herds and traditional folk breeding techniques. Natural selection retains a significant influence on the characteristics of the reindeer phenotype since this type of domestic animals is kept all year round in natural conditions. A comparison was made of the frequency of alleles of transferrin loci in domesticated deer of the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, the Nenets Autonomous Okrug, and the Komi Republic. The results of the study of the genetic variability of blood transferrin in domestic reindeer of various ecotypes indicate a significant similarity between them in most allelic frequencies, which confirms the common origin, economic and breeding use of Nenets animals. At the same time, the detected differences in the genetic variants TfA, TfC1, TfD2 suggest that there is an influx of genes on the periphery of the Nenets breed in its eastern part. In studies conducted among ecotypes of the Nenets breed of reindeer, the indicator of genetic similarity I was 0.8996 0.9759 in the main array, which corresponds to the level of local populations in wild animals. According to the author, the selection of domestic deer should be aimed at enhancing the overall resistance. At the same time, the predominant type of selection should be marker based on further study of the reindeer gene pool
Keywords: reindeer, domestication, breeds of deer, breeding and breeding, gene pool
New insight into the mechanisms of domestication: oxytocin as a behaviour marker Herbek Yu.E.
On the types of hair cover colouring in a black sable breed Fedoseeva G.A.
Federal State Budgetary Research Institute «V.A. Afanasyev Research Institute of Fur-Bearing Animal and Rabbit Breeding» (FSBSI NIIPZK),
Rodniky, Moscow region, Russia
Abstract. The paper tells about the types of hair cover colouring in a black sable breed, including black-headed and pastel sables, bred at the Federal State Unitary Enterprise “Russian Sable”. A long ago as in 1990s, the first animals with specific colouring, namely various fur tinctures, appeared at the Sable Farm “Pushkinskyi”. It should be noted that the coloured specimens were found in the groups, which included specimens from Kamchatka and the Ural region brought to the farm in 1981 and 1991. One can expect that the gene pool of the introduced animals had affected the colouring of the local farm sable population. In 2005, the Heads of “Pushkinskyi” and the FSBSI “V.A. Afanasyev Research Institute of Fur-Animal and Rabbit Breeding” agreed on establishment of a group to study the nature of this colouring. The main goal of the new group, which included staff members of the Institute, G.A. Kuznetsov, E.G. Sergeev and G.A. Fedoseeva, was to study the variability and inheritance of the unordinary colouring. For the purpose of the study, a united group consisting of the specialists from both the Institute and the Farm analysed all the animals and defined them as follows: pastel sable are those possessing a lighter, than the black ones, overall hair colouring, including guard hairs – from light to dark brown and down-ranging from light grey to light blue with hair tips – from light brown to brown. The inheritance of the colouring was analysed with a splitting analysis with regards to colouring of offspring obtained as a result of homogenous and heterogeneous breeding of pastel males and females of the black sable breed.
Key words: sable (Martes zibellina. L. 1758), black sable, pastel sable, offspring splitting with regards to colouring, reproductive power, breed, type.
What is domestication and how it is related to humans? Seraya O.Yu.
FSBRI Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Biophysics, Pushino, Moscow region, Russia
FSBRI «V.A. Afanasyev Research Institute of Fur-Bearing Animal and Rabbit Breeding» (FSBSI NIIPZK), Rodniky, Moscow region, Russia
Abstract. The article presents a short review of theoretical and experimental foundations of the hypothesis telling that in course of domestication of other species people have established conditions that made themselves to acquire traits of a domesticated species.