Journal №4 2019
Updated: Feb 13, 2020
Conference “Domestication as an evolution factor”
Adaptation abilities of steppe (Marmota bobak Müller, 1776) and black-capped (M. camtschatica Pallas, 1811) marmots for domestication I.A. Plotnikov, N.A. Balakirev, G.A. Fedoseeva, I.A. Domskiy, M.M. Mukhamedyanov.
Abstract. Examination of adaptation of the steppe and black-capped marmots to the artificial environment, biological and technological characteristics of the cage management and feeding of the species provide a possibility to assay possibilities and prospectives of marmot domestication. In the central region of the European Russia, two-row animal sheds with open lateral sides can be used for cage management of the marmots. In the East of the European Russia, the cages must be placed into the sheds closed on all sides. Group hibernation in the conditions of the cage management provides minimal loss of animal body mass. Body mass of young steppe marmots wintered individually decreased by 37.9%, of those wintered by threes – by 27.6% (р≤0,05), regardless of an animal gender. Young animals that wintered in pairs had the intermediate losses (29.9–30.6%). The black-capped marmots had the following results: the animals who wintered in pairs had 28.5% losses in body mass, while the losses of the animals that wintered by threes were only 18.1% (р≤0,05). The adult black-capped marmots that wintered in pairs had 22.6% losses in body mass, that is 9.5% less than the steppe marmots. Nutrient requirements of marmots at their cage management cannot be satisfied by the green grass and vegetables only, without concentrates. At that, the steppe marmots prefer granulated concentrates, while the black-capped like wet mashes. Digestion coefficients (DC) of the diet nutrients show the essential species differences in the marmots digestion. The DCs of the protein and fat of a diet containing a protein-rich (27.7%) feed concentrate are 75.5% and 73.5% in black-capped marmots while those of the steppe ones reach only 71.0% and 63.2% (p≤0,01). The only feed that is better digested by steppe marmots is fibers. Their fiber DC is 39.4%, while the black-capped have 30.8% (p≤0,01). To maintain a zero balance, the black-capped marmots need up to 12% higher energy supply with a diet per a kilogram of body mass: in spring, young steppe marmots need 497 kJ of a supporting metabolizable energy per a kg of body mass, while young black-capped need 558 kJ, that is, 47% and 59% (respectively, by species) higher than in autumn. The lower content of digestible protein is 19.0% of a diet dry matter for the black-capped marmots, and 4.4% for the steppe marmots.
Keywords: steppe marmot, black-capped marmot, adaptation, domestication, management, feeding
Accumulation of genetic genetic load in domesticated species of domestic animals J.V. Mukiy, G.Yu. Kosovsky.
Mukiy J.V. Accumulation of genetic genetic load in domesticated species of domestic animals.
Summary. The paper describes a study on the accumulation of genetic load in dogs of the following breeds: West highland white Terrier, Newfoundland, Tibetan Mastiff, Eastern European shepherd, Mexican naked dog, Russian hunting Spaniel. The study revealed the accumulation of mutant alleles in animals of these populations at inbred mating and in related individuals. The mutations were manifested in the form of the following anomalies: malocclusion (shortening of the upper jaw, shortening of the mandible and direct); inguinal hernia; cryptorchism; pathologies of the forelimbs; atypical shape of the head and auricles; microtia and anotia; deafness; skintags; postaxial polydactyly; pathology of the gastrointestinal tract, the development of tooth enamel and ear cartilage; bending the tail; lethality. All the studied pathologies, except for cryptorchidism in Russian hunting spaniels, have autosomal recessive and possibly polygenic character of inheritance with different expressivity. Cryptorchidism in Russian spaniels was inherited as a recessive trait linked to the X-chromosome. In addition, the authors examined the polymorphism of DGAT1 and GHR genes in cows of Ayrshire breed in one of the farms in Leningrad region and calculated the frequency of genotypes occurrence in two groups of 300 animals. The analysis showed that artificial selection on the basis of milk production changes the frequency of alleles in contrast to the Hardy-Weinberg's law.
Keywords: genetic load, domesticated species, dogs, cows of Ayrshire breed.
SCIENTIFIC ISSUES AND BEST PRACTICE
Feedstuff for agricultural animals and feeding practices
Morphological and functional condition of the thyroid status in young minks (Neovison vison) during replacement of hair covering at correction of iodine deficiency N.N. Loenko, E.V. Krovina, O.V. Rastimeshina, A. I. Mayorov, O.L. Rapoport.
N.N. LOENKO, PhD (Agriculture)
E.V. KROVINA, PhD (Biology)
O.V. RASTIMESHINA, PhD (Agriculture)
A. I. MAYOROV, Dr. Sc. (Veterinary)
O.L. RAPOPORT, Dr. Sc. (Agriculture)
FSBSI VA Afanasyev Research Institute of Fur-Bearing Animal and Rabbit Breeding
Summary. The effectiveness of the organic iodine additives use for the correction of iodine-deficient condition and of the winter fur maturation process in the young minks is underinvestigated. To examine the effects of organic iodine in the form of the iodine-gorgonian acid included into the diet of young minks on the morphological and functional condition of the thyroid gland of the animals, changes in the morphology of their derma-hair covering, and the thyroxin Т4 level, the authors performed a research-economic experiment with young minks during the summer and autumn replacement of their hair covering followed by the December slaughter of the animals, and the laboratory experiments. The diet was supplemented with iodine in the form of a complex iodine-containing preparation “Abiopeptide plus iodine” containing 200 or 400 mcg iodine per 1 ml.
Administration of the organic iodine in the dose of 0.2 mg or 0.4 mg per a kilogram of body mass a day in the period of the autumn molting increases the thyroxin Т4 level by 1.3 and 37.7%, respectively, as compared with the control. Measuring of the length of various type hair at the main topographical areas of the pelts: chine, side and rump, showed an increase in the length of the down hair (by 2.9 and 2.3%, р<0,05) and the guard hair (by 1.0 and 1.6%) in comparison with the control. Administration of the organic iodine caused a decrease in the dermal thermostatic layer by 7.0–7.1% in comparison with the control (р<0,001), and an increase in the dermal reticular layer by 7.0–7.2% (р<0,01; р<0,001) in comparison with the control. The depth of hair follicles bedding in the animals of the tested groups was 10.3–13.0% less than in the control (р<0,001). It tells on the earlier completion of maturation of the winter covering in minks.
In the males of the test group, at the supplementation of the diet with “Abiopeptide plus iodine” in the dose of 0.4 mg iodine per a kilogram of body weight a day, the thyroid gland was active (in 100% of the tested animals), in accordance with the known level of the T4 hormone in the animals in the period of winter hair covering formation. It was found that in young minks with a «hair cut» defect, the thyroid gland functioned actively in 20% of the animals in comparison with 60% in the defect-free animals. Supplementation of the young minks diet with the organic iodine in the period of summer and autumn replacement of hair covering helps to correct the iodine deficiency and the maturation of winter hair covering in young minks.
Key words: mink, Neovison vison, organic iodine, morphological study, thyroid gland, thyroxine, biochemical parameters, blood, dermal coating, hair coating, derma, moult of hair.
Integrated influence of antihelminth preparations and fodder biologically active additive (baa) on the quality of silver fox skins K.V. Esepenok, A.I. Sapozhnikova, G.Yu. Kosovsky, E.G. Kvartnikova.
K.V. Esepenok1, PhD applicant
A.I. Sapozhnikova2, Grand PhD in Engineering sciences, Professor
G.Yu. Kosovsky3, Grand PhD in Biological sciences, Professor
E.G. Kvartnikova4, Grand PhD in Agricultural sciences, Professor
1FSEI HE MSAVMB-MVA
2FSEI HE MSAVMB-MVA
3FSB SI NIIPZK
4FSB SI NIIPZK
Esepenok K.V., Sapozhnikova A.I., Kosovsky G.Yu., Kvartnikova E.G. Influence of antihelminth preparations and fodder biologically active additive (BAA) on the quality of silver fox skins
Summary. The work is devoted to the assessment of some indicators of the quality of silver-black fox skins as a result of the use of the anthelmintic preparations «Albamelin» and «Niacid-granules plus», as well as the «Bioactive Keratin» feed additive when conducting scientific and business experiment at the Breeding Fur farm "Saltykovsky", PLC. The author characterize the basic properties of the skins of silver-black fox obtained from animals from the experimental and control groups, in accordance with the requirements of GOST 2790-78. It was shown that the drug «Niacid-granules plus» in combination with the «Bioactive keratin» at a dosage of 0.2% of the basic diet significantly contributes to the improvement of the size-mass characteristics of silver-black fox fur.
Keywords: silver-black fox, bioactive keratin, albamelin, niacid-granules plus, sorting, mass of skins, area of skins, hair length, hair thickness, color of skins, silver group, group of defects, size categories of skins
Synthetic three-breed cross-rabbit and its "novelty" in comparison to the parent breeds E.S. Shchukina, V.I. Glazko, Т.Т. Glazko, G.Yu. Kosovsky, A.R. Shumilina.
E.S. SHCHUKINA1, junior researcher
V.I. GLAZKO1,2, Dr. Sc. (Agriculture), Academician of RAS (foreign member)
Т.Т. GLAZKO1,2, Dr. Sc. (Agriculture), Professor
G.Yu. KOSOVSKY1, Dr. Sc. (Biology), Professor of RAS
A.R. SHUMILINA 1, Ph.D (Biology)
Summary. The most important task at now is the need to preserve the breed diversity of domesticated animal species and its multiplication, on which depends the sustainable development of rabbit breeding, aimed not only the increasing the productivity and conservation of domestic genetic resources, but also to increase the adaptive potential of animals. In this regard the particular importance is the preservation of existing and the creation of new breeds of domestic rabbit, livestock products of which have of great importance, both in the production of dietary meat and in the provision of raw materials for the fur production. With the purpose of formation of the gene pool, which combines the desirable balance between productive and adaptive potential of animals it was created in FSBSI NIIPZK the new synthetic rabbit form on the basis of two meat-skin (White Giant and Soviet Chinchilla) and the meet (California) breeds according to the five-stage scheme of mating. It is necessary to use the most informative DNA markers of genomic sites polymorphism to control and manage the gene pool of a new synthetic breed, allowing to obtain information about the features of its genetic structure and its dynamics in generations and to develop methods for its correction in the desired direction, Polylocus genotyping of the parental forms of the rabbit and synthetic cross were carried out using the most informative molecular genetic markers - multilocus ISSR markers (Inter Simple Sequence Repeats) - between inverted microsatellite sequences and IRAP (Inter-Retrotransposon Amplified Polуmorphism) - fragments of genomic DNA flanked by inverted repeats of transposons. The greatest genetic distance (M. Nei, 1972) in the studied rabbit breeds on the molecular genetic markers, according to the calculations of the amplification product spectra, was observed between the synthetic three-breed cross and Californian breed by primers (GCT)6C; (ACC)6C and transposon Sabrina 1336. EMR (Effective Multiplex Ratio) and MI (Marker Index), widely used in numerous studies with the aim of identifying the informative potential of molecular markers, the results of which are comparable to the high values of the indicators to each other, we can identify a number of primers, which are highly informative for several rabbit breeds, so the transposon Bare-123A equally high for EMR and MI to California, Soviet Chinchilla and White Giant breeds. Comparative evaluation of dendrograms, polymorphic information content and such indicators as EMR and MI allowed to reveal molecular markers necessary for genetic identification of parent rabbit breeds in comparison with synthetic three-breed cross. In this study, 40 animals (10 animals from each breed) were genotyped, 95 loci were analyzed, of which 66 were polymorphic and 29 were conservative.
Keywords: rabbit, synthetic three-breed cross, genotyping, ISSR, IRAP, transposons, microsatellites, molecular genetic markers, proportion of polymorphic loci, PIC, EMR, MI.
Laboratory animal and plant models
Animal models in biomedical studies. I. Rabbits O.Yu. Seraya.
The article contains a review of the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) use in the studies of the biological processes under normal and pathological conditions and in the control of the medical products quality, including pyrogenicity of those used for parenteral application or administration in medicine and veterinary. The Federal Target Program “Development of the Pharmaceutical and Medical Industries of the Russian Federation until 2020 and Further Perspective” implies intensification of the use of laboratory animals, because the development and testing of drugs and biologicals involves their obligatory testing in the animal models at the stages of non-clinical trials. The rabbits as a species are the phylogenetically closest to the human species so their use is especially intensive.
The author pays the special attention to the use of rabbits in the control of pyrogenicity of the parenteral application or administration in medicine and veterinary, because this control cannot be replaced by the in vitro LAL-test. This is especially actual for Russia that has no own resources for the production of the main reagent for LAL/TAL-test: lysate of a horseshoe crab inhabiting only the Atlantic coast in the Northern America and the shore of the Persian Gulf (Limulus) or the sea coasts of the south-eastern Asia (Tachypleus)
Keywords: laboratory animals, animal models, rabbit, nonclinical trials, pyrogenicity, nonclinical trials
Year-end ranking of the fur farms of the Russian Federation in 2018 EG Sergeev.
EG Sergeev, PhD (Agriculture)
The Information Support Center for Fur-Bearing Animal and Rabbit Breeding at the FSFRI VA Afanasyev RIFBARB used the results of the fur animals gene pool monitoring in 35 fur farms in 2018 for the comparative analysis by the following parameters: 1) breeding stock as per Jan.01, 2) young animals total as per July 01 and 3) kit crop per a female of the main herd. Five top farms were selected in each nominated category. The Selection Board considered four main species of fur animals: mink, polar fox, fox and sable. In each species, the farms with maximal score on three parameters were selected. The first place was scored as 5 points, the fifth place – as one point. The analysis revealed three top farms from those breeding two or more fur animal species: state fur farm “Biruli” – 29 points, state fur farm “Vyatka” – 27 points and state fur farm “Saltykovski” – 17 points.
Keywords: mink, fox, polar fox, sable, breeding stock, reproductive indices