Journal №5 2019
Updated: Feb 13, 2020
Feedstuff for agricultural animals and feeding practices
Increase in food use efficiency in minks and sables TM Demina, OV Rastimeshina, EG Sergeev, BV Novikov, AI Mayorov.
TM Demina, OV Rastimeshina, EG Sergeev, BV Novikov, AI Mayorov
Summary. The study considers the levels of food costs for production of pelts (per a unit of area) in sables at individual housing and performs the comparative evaluation of the parameter at different systems of housing (individual or pairwise) of
minks during the growth period. The authors demonstrated that increase in body sizes of both males and females is followed by increase in food payment (by 1-7%).
At the pairwise housing of young minks during the growth period, increase in body sizes of both males and females is followed by increase in food use efficiency (food payment).
The high coefficients of the correlation between the food payment and live weight (r=0.32-0.37), food payment and pelt size (r=0.66-0.80) confirm the concept that at pairwise housing during the growth period, big animals pay for food better than the small ones.
The comparison of two groups of mink males grown under the different housing systems showed the substantial increase in food payment (by 13%) and decrease in the food costs for production of pelts (per a unit of area) (by 11%) at pairwise housing as compared to the individual housing. At that, in the females grown under different housing conditions, differences in these parameters did not reach the statistical significance.
Keywords: mink, sable, food cost, food payment, selection, live weight, pelt area.
The Development of Industrial Rabbit Breeding in the Kuban Region V.I. Komlatsky, L.E.Zyganok, V.S.Turkova.
V.I. Komlatsky, L.E.Zyganok, V.S.Turkova,
KUBAN STATE AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY
The article analyzes the development of rabbit breeding in the Krasnodar Territory. In conditions when, due to the African plague in the Kuban region, the pig population in the farms of the local population is limited, the villagers are invited to develop alternative types of animal husbandry, including rabbit breeding. Krasnodar Territory is one of the leading agricultural regions of the country with sustainable feed resources for animals and has all the possibilities for the development of this industry. The article notes that a small proportion of rabbit meat in the Russian meat segment of food is largely determined by the insufficient consumption culture of this product. The growth of the market is also hindered by the fact that mainly household rabbit and small farmers who grow rabbits using obsolete technologies supply rabbit for sale. For the mass transition to this type of alternative animal husbandry, financial support and a number of propaganda, organizational, technological and managerial decisions are necessary to ensure the stable operation of the new business. In some cases, it will be necessary to allocate land for the construction of a farm and living quarters for staff. One of the priorities is to create a network of certified slaughterhouses in distance from farms not more than 50 km. Today, the main markets for dietary meat are Moscow and St. Petersburg. Meanwhile, the resort region is poorly developed, which, with proper management, could become a major consumer of dietary meat. In the meantime, trade is revived only with the beginning of the holiday season. The majority of small farms is forced to process animals independently. Without having certificates for such activities, they cannot hand over the products to the trading network and are forced to sell them on the markets. For successful management of the rabbit breeding business, it is necessary to ensure cyclical production, use highly productive animal hybrids and artificial insemination. To solve the problem of marketing it is necessary to create cooperatives. This is especially true for small and medium-sized farms. In general, for the development of rabbit breeding, the best scheme of a complete production process is the formation of a cluster that would include small farms, large complexes, breeding reproducers, a compound feed plant, a slaughterhouse, a network of trading points. A prerequisite is the organization of high-tech automated production and financial support for beginning farmers in the form of grants and subsidies for the construction of farms and the purchase of young rabbits. The development of intensive rabbit breeding not only contributes to food security, but also has a pronounced social character, stimulating employment and increasing incomes of the rural population.
Keywords: industrial rabbit breeding, small business forms, rabbit breeding cluster, cooperation, feed mill, marketing, processing, self-employment, equipment.
Veterinary and veterinarian diseases
The effect of additional immunization of pregnant female arctic foxes against salmonello sis on the formation of colostral immunity in puppies Z.N. Beltyukova, I.A. Domsky, O.Yu. Bespyatykh.
Z.N. Beltyukova1, I.A. Domsky1, O.Yu. Bespyatykh2
1 B.M. Zhitkov FSBSI VNIIOZ
2 FSBEI HE "Vyatka State University"
Summary. The manuscript considers the effects of anti-salmonellosis immunization of pregnant foxes on the formation of colostral immunity in puppies. Understanding of the mechanisms that form the protection of an animal organism against the infectious diseases is a key point for the development of the optimal immunization regimens considering industrial technology in fur farming industry. Immunological status is a crucial issue in the formation of a breeding animals herd. The authors developed a scheme of immunization that gives the maximum anti-salmonellosis protection since the fetal development of an animal and further forms the solid immunity protecting the young fur animals from infectious diseases. The transfer of the immunity from mothers to their offspring creates reliable protection for newborn pups during the first weeks of their live. Prevention of microbial contamination of the fetus is realized through a kind of an "immunological umbrella", that is, the saturation of maternal blood with specific antimicrobial factors that neutralize the microflora entering the fetus. During the period of intrauterine development of the fetus, replenishment of the fetal blood flow with maternal antibodies (immunoglobulins) is realized through the placenta, at that the antibodies do not lose their biological activity. The issue of improvement of the specific prevention of salmonellosis in Arctic foxes in order to increase the productivity of the animals and reduce the losses of young animals is actual up to now. In order to increase the level of immunity and ensure immune protection of the newborn puppies, the fox females were vaccinated against salmonellosis in 2 stages: parenterally 30 days before rut and orally 2 weeks before the expected littering. The analysis of the results showed that the maternal organism’s immune response had a significant impact on the formation of the intense colostral immunity to salmonellosis in the offspring. The proposed scheme of the anti-salmonellosis immunization of the pregnant arctic foxes provides maximum protection of their pups from Salmonella infection, beginning from the intrauterine development. Production testing of the suggested scheme of the arctic foxes anti-salmonellosis immunization showed that in the experimental group of the females administered with an additional vaccination 2 weeks before littering, livability of the puppies was 12% higher, and the pups yield per the main female 13% higher than in the control group. Thus, the additional oral immunization of the pregnant foxes with the vaccine from attenuated Salmonella strains two weeks prior to the date of the expected littering had no adverse effects on the gestation course and littering, and contributed to the formation of the intense colostral anti-salmonellosis immunity in the pups.
Key words: immunity, vaccination, salmonellosis, arctic fox puppies.
Frequency of the micronuclei occurrence in the erythrocytes of the three-bred rabbit cross at different staining techniques K.V. Zhilina, I.V. Petrova, L.E. Grishina, A.N. Semikrasova, G.Yu. Kosovsky.
K.V. Zhilina, I.V. Petrova, L.E. Grishina, A.N. Semikrasova, G.Yu. Kosovsky
Rabbit breeding is a branch of the animal breeding with high opportunities for rapid increase in production rate and amount relatively cheap meat. The effectiveness of the animal breeding depends essentially on the genetic welfare of the pedigree animals. The results of the abundant investigations tell that the impairment of the reproductive function of the agricultural animals the along with the neonatal mortality are the main challenges in the further improvement of the animal breeding productivity. The genetic instability of the stud animals both of genetic and of paratypic origin makes a great contribution in these negative phenomena.
The first investigations of the mutation spectra in the somatic cells and cytogenetic examinations were performed in the 20-th century. In 1973 W. Schmid proposed a micronucleus test. The test is one of the informative and prompt methods for examination of cytogenetic damages. It is based on the estimation of numbers of the cells containing micronuclei, which are the indicator of environmental genotoxic factors impact. The test involves the erythrocytes or some other highly specialized cells of a live organism. Techniques of micronucleus testing in rabbits is underinvestigated, so the main aim of the authors was a comparative analysis of the effectiveness of various staining techniques for blood smears to reveal the micronuclei in the erythrocytes.
Keywords: micronuclei, erythrocyte, rabbit, stain
Pedigree work and animal breeding
Selection against a maternal instinct in rabbits TK Karelina, GU Kosovski, TV Prokhorenko, EA Streltsova, NI Tinayev.
TK Karelina, GU Kosovski, TV Prokhorenko, EA Streltsova, NI Tinayev
The manuscript considers investigations in the development of a new approach to rabbit selection, namely, against the maternal instinct. The experiments involved the rabbits of a White Giant breed, the main characters of which good maternal behavior, high earliness and meat productivity.
The data presented in the manuscript illustrate development of the female rabbits rating on the base of the maternal instinct, that is, on the base of the level of a “nest” formation with different amount of the rabbit wool or without it and the condition of the newborn kits in the nest.
The results of the investigation served as a basis for the development of the rating of the rabbit maternal instinct («elite», I class, II class, III class).
The matter of the selection approach is as follows: immediately after the littering, a female is rated on the basis of her formed nest with various amounts of the rabbit wool or without it and the condition of the newborn pups. The females are distributed into the “elite”, I, II and III classes. Further, the animals of the “elite” and I classes are distributed into the breeding herd, those of the II class – to the commercial class, and the III class is culled.
The maternal instinct selection can be used for the evaluation of the female rabbits of the main herd and replacement female rabbits before their transition into the main herd, and in the selection and stock breeding of any rabbit breeds at various management systems.
Selection of the female rabbits allows to improve the rabbit breeding effectiveness due to the early selection and culling of the rabbits.
Keywords: rabbit, selection, White Giant, new selection approach, maternal instinct, class, rabbit wool, mass, effect