• Daniil Krupko

Journal №6 2019

Updated: Sep 24, 2020


CONTENTS

Pedigree work and animal breeding

Factors affecting the reproductive success of the Mustelidae members............................3

D.V. Popov, I.S. Kashapova, B.V. Novikov, E.S. Shchukina, G.Yu. Kosovsky


FSBSI NIIPZK

E.mail: niipzk@mail.ru

Summary. In the last centuries the biology of the mammal reproductive system became an actual subject for many scientists. Modern techniques and available theoretical and experimental data make it possible to control the reproductive processes of most domestic and agricultural animal species. To date, representatives of the Mustelidae family are the most promising objects of fur farming, however, the control of reproduction cycles of these animals is still impossible. The paper aimed to review the studies of the biology of Mustelidaereproduction, first of all, to obtain new fundamental knowledge about the physiology of the reproduction system and growth features of these animals, as well as, to develop the applied methods both for the needs of the fur industry and for the preservation and to multiplication of the populations of endangered species by the creating of genetic material cryobanks. The review presents a brief description of the reproductive system physiology of the representatives of the Mustelidae family, considers factors affecting their reproductive success, such as the availability of feed resources, climatic conditions, animal health, epidemiological conditions, amount of the individuals in the habitat, etc. The presented data can be used in the development of management systems for the Mustelidae in the fur farms for the purposes of effective animal breeding by controlling their sexual functions in order to maximize the use of the biological potential of animals.

Keywords: Mustelidae, mink, reproductive success, reproduction, diapause, hormones.


The dynamics of the rabbit productive indicators at the creation of the final three-breed cross.........................................................................................................................................9

A.R. Shumilina


A.R. SHUMILINA

FSBSI NIIPZK

e-mail: niipzk@mail.ru

Summary. The creation of competitive native rabbit crosses is a challenging issue of the rabbit breeding. The team of the V.A. Afanasyaev Fur Animal and Rabbit Farming Institute conducted the long term researches in the rabbits kept in the shed conditions and created several rabbit crosses: three intermediate (Rod 1, Rod 2 and Rod 3) and one final three-breed cross (Rodnik). The process of the final cross F2 production demonstrated the high indices of the female rabbits productivity, baby rabbits viability (per a female) and of the youth live weight by the slaughter age. The indices are consistent with the appropriate ones of the foreign crosses imported from the Europe and kept in the rabbit sheds with the controlled microclimate and mechanized feeding and watering. The average female rabbits fecundity at the pure breeding of the final cross Rodnik is 9.3 babies per a female; the youth viability per a female in the 77-day age is 7.5, and in the 90-day age is; the average live weight of a 77-day-old animal is 2.62 kg, and that of the 90-day-old is 3.11 kg.

A pattern of the multiple rotation of three breeds, White Giant (WG), Soviet Chinchilla (SC) and Californian (Cf), that includes three intermediate crosses was developed and scientifically based at the Department of Experimental Rabbit Breeding of the Institute.

The first selection stage resulted in the determination of the optimal crossbreeding pattern for the creation of two-breed animals for the further creation of the three-breed cross. The pattern involved a WG male and an SC female (Rod 1).

The crossbreeding of a two-breed male (♂WG×♀SC) with a purebred Californian female at the second selection stage was the most efficient way to increase live weight of the mixed youth obtained at the first stage (Rod 2).

The third selection stage was aimed to the improvement of the fecundity, increase in the numbers of weaned babies and improvement of the color homogeneity. The crossing of the two-breed males ♂WG×♀SC with mixed three-breed females [(♂WG×♀SC)×♀Cf] (Rod 3) appeared the best cross breeding pattern from five proposed.

At the fourth selection stage, live weight of the animals by the slaughter age was increased by the crossing of the mixtures of ¼-breed males (relatively the Californian blood) that were obtained at the third stage with the Californian females. Use of the Californian breed at this stage provides a possibility to improve the carcass traits of the youth (live weight by the slaughter age) and to create the animals with more consolidated phenotypes. This stage resulted in the creation of the youth ♂{(WG×SC)×[(WG×SC)×Cf]}×Cf (cross-breed «Rodnik»).

The pure breeding of the cross-breed Rodnik provided the highest indices of the female fecundity, and of the youth live weight and viability (per a female), consistent with the same indices of the imported foreign crosses.

Keywords: rabbit, three-breed cross, fecundity, rabbit yield, live weight.


Summary of the wolverine (Gulo gulo L.) long-term breeding in the Rare Animals Facility of the Moscow Zoo............................................................................................................................16

B.V. Novikov, T.S. Demina, I.Yu. Rozhkov, A.I. Mayorov, T.M. Chekalova

1B.V. Novikov, 2T.S. Demina, 1I.Yu. Rozhkov, 1A.I. Mayorov, 1T.M. Chekalova

1. FSBSI NIIPZK

2. Moscow Zoo

E.mail: niipzk@mail.ru

Due to its biological properties, the numbers of wolverines are limited all over its huge natural habitat in the Holarctic region. Systematically, the Gulo verges on Martes of true mustelids. They share not only the dental system and some features of the skull but such specific traits as glandular spaces at their abdomens and some homological instincts and  some behavioral traits. The members of the both genera are not multiparous animals. A female has only two nipple couples, while the females of small mustelids (ermines and ferrets) have up to four couples each. The members of Martes and Gulo have the longest gestation periods through the whole subfamily: about eight months in wolverine and over 9 months in sables. A wolverine female brings 2–3 puppies, sets from one or four puppies are the same rare. Moreover, she brings the puppies every other year, and nurtures them in the severe northern environment for almost a year. The paper present the results of researches on a species adaptation to the people-close life and previously unknown biological features of wolverines that the authors got from their over 20-year experience of wolverine glutton breeding.

Key words: wolverine, number, breeding, technology, gene pool.


Feeding practice and feedstuff for the agricultural animals

The influence of the natural mineral fodder additive "Tseostimul" on the metabolism and productivity of silver foxes

G. S.Frolov, A. Sh. Saliakhov, O.A.Yakimov

G. S. Frolov, O.A. Yakimov

N. E. Bauman Kazan state Academy of veterinary medicine

Development and introduction of modern progressive technologies of feeding of fur animals allowing to increase biological usefulness of forages and efficiency of diets, and to reduce their cost is one of the main tasks of animal husbandry. The aim of our work was to determine the optimal dose of the mineral Supplement "Stimulus" in the diets of silver-black foxes to improve quantitative and qualitative indicators of their productivity.

Keywords: feeding, silver-black foxes, live weight, hematological parameters, fur productivity, economic efficiency.


Biotechnology

Diapause: significance and mechanisms of regulation.........................................................50

E.S. Shchukina, I.S. Kashapova, D.V Popov, G.Yu. Kosovsky

E.S. Shchukina, I.S. Kashapova, D.V. Popov, G.Yu. Kosovsky

FSBSI NIIPZK

E.mail: niipzk@mail.ru

Diapause is the delay in an embryo growth or its arrest at the stage of blastocyst. This can be found in some animal species, including mammals.

The review considers the details of the diapause concept, the biological significance of the process, and characterizes the main mechanisms governing the preimplantation delay in the embryonic development of some mammal species.

Keywords: diapause, blastocyst, reactivation, signal transduction, embryonic stem cells.

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